Standards Domestic Water / Sanitation

Standards Domestic Water / Sanitation

No. 41100
GOVERNMENT GAZETTE, 8 SEPTEMBER 2017
Water and Sanitation, Department of/ Water en Sanitasie, Departement van
DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION
NO. 982
08 SEPTEMBER 2017
982

National Water Act (36/1998): National Norms and Standards for Domestic Water and Sanitation Services: Version 3-Final

41100
NATIONAL NORMS AND STANDARDS
FOR DOMESTIC
WATER AND SANITATION
SERVICES
Version 3- Final
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ii
Acknowledgement
This document was prepared by the CSIR Built Environment team consisting of Louiza Duncker
(project leader), Dr Ph
ilip R Page, Esther Ngorima
, Bongi Maposa
and S’bonelo Zulu
.
The CSIR team is grateful for the support from the project team
of the Department of Water and
Sanitation (DWS): Regulation and Compliance
(Mr Patrick Ntabeni, Mr Bekhubuhle Mbentse
, Mr
Siboniso
Ndlovu
and Mrs Julia Kekana)
for the section on water norms and standards,
and Mr
Siboniso Ndlovu, Mr Bekhubuhle Mbentse, Mrs Julia Kekana and Mrs Norma Lerobane for the section
on sanitation norms and standards.
The input and comments from the members of
the Reference Group
s are highly appreciated. The
Reference Group
s comprised:
Nonhlanhla Mkhize (DST)
Zinhle Nchunu (DST)
Tshepang Mosiea (DST)
Vespa Mabitsi (CoGTA)
Jay Bhagwan (WRC)
William Moraka (SALGA)
Pavel Polasek (MISA)
Melanie Wilkinson (Sustento
Development Services)
Mark Bannister (DWS)
André van der Walt (DWS)
Cyprian Mazubane (DWS)
Marina Milstein (DWS)
Lusanda Mfenqa (DWS)
Nandi Dube
(DWS)
Zama Masondo
(DWS)
Collen Morodi (DWS).
Herman Shokane (DWS)
Vongani Rikhotso (DWS)
Mxqisi Ntleki (DWS)
Miriam Ngoatje (DWS)
Ronald Matukane (DWS)
Aggrey Mohapi (DWS)
Richard Mbambo (DWS)
Rabasotho Kolokoto (DWS)
Muchumane Ndlovu (DWS)
Eugene Ntuli (DWS).
Takalani Modan (TMT)
Jacques Pretorius (Aquatrip)
Chris De Wet Steyn (Aquatrip)
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GOVERNMENT GAZETTE, 8 SEPTEMBER 2017
iii
List of abbreviations
AMI
Advanced metering infrastructure
AMM
Automated meter management
AMM -IM
Automated meter management with interval metering
AMR
Automated meter reading
CBO
Community-
based organisation
CoGTA
Department of Cooperative Government and Traditional Affai
rs
CSIR
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
DEA
Department of Environmental Affairs
DEAT
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
DMWS
Durban Metro Water Services
DPW
Department of Public Works
DWA
Department of Water Affairs
DWAF
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
DWS
Department of Water and Sanitation
dplg
Department of Provincial and Local Government
e.g.
for example
EHPs
Environmental Health Practitioners
EWR
Environmental Water Requirements
FBS
Free Basic Services
FBSan
Free Basic Sanitation
IAM
Infrastructure Asset Management
i.e.
that is
IBT
Increasing Block Tariff
IWRM
Integrated Water Resource Management
JMP
Joint Monitoring Programme
k
kilo (a thousand of a quantity)
kPa
Kilo Pascal
L
Litre
L/c/d
litre/capita/day
L/p/d
litre/person/day
LES
Local Equitable Share
LGES
Local Government Equitable Share
LOFLOS
low flow on
-site sanitation systems
m
metre
MDGs
Millennium Development Goals
MIG
Municipal Infrastructure Grant
MUS
Multiple Use Serv
ices
NBR
National Building Regulations
NDP
National Development Plan
NEMA
National Environmental Management Act
NGO
Non- Governmental Organisation
NPC
National Planning Commission
NSPU
National Sanitation Programme Unit
NWA
National Water Act, No 36
of 1998
NWPR
National Water Policy Review
NWRS
National Water Resources Strategy
NWRS2
Second National Water Resources Strategy
NWSA
National Water Services Act, No 108 of 1997
OD
Open defecation
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iv
OHSA
Occupational Health and Safety Act, No 85 of 1993
O&M
Operation and Maintenance
PPM
Pre -payment meter
RDP
Reconstruction and Development Program
RPMS
Regulatory Performance Measurement System
SABS
South African Bureau of Standards
SALGA
South African Local Government Association
SANS
South Afric
an National Standards
SDEP
Sewage Disposal Education Programme
SDGs
Sustainable Development Goals
SFWS
Strategic Framework for Water Services
StatSA
Statistics South Africa
STED
septic tank effluent drainage
UD
Urine Diversion
UN
United Nations
UNEP
United Nations Environmental Programme
UNICEF
United Nations Children Education Fund
VIP
Ventilated Improved Pit
W
2
RAP
Wastewater Risk Abatement Plan
WARS
Strategy for Water Allocation Reforms
WC
Water conservation
WCDM
Water Conservation and Deman
d Management
WCP
Water Conservation Plan
WDM
Water demand management
WEDC
Water Engineering for Developing Countries
WHO
World Health Organisation
WRC
Water Research Commission
WSA
Water Services Authority
WSDP
Water Services Development Plan
WSP
Water Services Provider
WWTW
Wastewater treatment works
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v
Preamble
The current norms and standards for water and sanitation have, over the last few decades,
inadvertently focused on addressing water services and backlogs in urban areas, unintentionally
overlooking the diverse variances and challenges prevalent in the rural areas. Consequently, l
ocal
government structures are dealing with a range of approaches to
water service provision that span
both urban and rural areas, which are often based on the all
ocation of powers and functions between
district municipalities and local municipalities, thus creating confusion and misalignment in the
provision of services.
The Water Services
Act ( WSA) 108 of 1997
mandates the Minister responsible for water and
sanita tion to prescribe compulsory national norms and standards in accordance with Sections 9 and
10 of the Act. These norms and standards are fluid and may be reviewed for the benefit of the
population of South Africa. The National Water Policy Review (NWPR) re
sulted in the prioritisation of
access to basic water supply in the form of a yard tap to all households in the country, and the 2016
Sanitation Policy refers to at least a Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) toilet per household for basic
sanitation.
The Minister responsible for water and sanitation has been called upon to develop norms and
standards for equitable water services provision to households, which are aligned with the
Strategic
Framework for Water Services (
SFWS ), taking into account availability of
water resources, financial
challenges, geographical placement issues, servicing of vulnerable groups and addressing the
backlog.
This document is the culmination of the review and revision of the international and national norms
and standards for water and sanitation
services. It sets out and describes the national norms and
standards for levels of water services, including sanitation, which will be applicable from 2017
onwards, until the Minister requests another revision in future.
After the introduction and definitions, t
he first part of the document (Part One) focuses on water
components of water services and the second part of the document (Part Two) focuses on the
sanitation and waste water components of water services.
Part Three summarises the mon
itoring and
reporting responsibilities and Part 4 conclude with a proposed plan of action in implementing the
norms and standards for water and sanitation services.
Annexure A summarises the legislation impacting on water and sanitation services, Annexure
B list
the policies and
strategies, and Annexure C provides a list of
current
guidelines
and standards
pertaining to
water and sanitation services.
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Table of Contents
1.
Introduction
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
….. 8
2.
Definition and description of terms used
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………….
9
3.
The principles underpinning the norms and standards
…………………………..
…………………………..
. 13
PART ONE
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
………..
14
Norms and standards for Water Supply Services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………….
14
4.
Cross -cutting norms and standards for water services
…………………………..
…………………………..
. 15
4.1
Water quality
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………….
15
4.2
Pressure in a water reticulation system
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………….
15
4.3
Water metering
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………
16
4.4
Water tariffing
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………..
17
4.5
Water re
-use and recycling
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
… 18
4.6
Asset management
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
……………
19
5.
Norms and standards for levels of water supply services
…………………………..
………………………..
20
5.1
Bulk level o
f services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………
21
5.2
Minimum level of services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…. 21
5.2.1
Intermittent provision of water at a minimum level of water supply services
………………..
22
5.2.2
Basic water supply services
…………………………..
…………………………..
………………………..
22
5.2.3
Free Basic water supply services to the indigent
…………………………..
………………………..
23
5.2.4
Basic Plus water supply services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………
23
5.3
Middle level of water services
…………………………..
…………………………..
………………………….
24
5.3.1
Intermediate l
evel of water supply services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…… 24
5.3.2
Upper middle level of water supply service
…………………………..
…………………………..
…… 25
5.4
Full level of water services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
… 25
5.5
Interim level of water services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………
26
5.6
Emergency level of water services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………..
27
5.7
Water for firefighting
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
………….
28
5.8
Self- supply level of water services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………..
28
5.9
Water services to public facilities
…………………………..
…………………………..
……………………..
29
5.9.1
Water supply to educational facilities
…………………………..
…………………………..
……………
29
5.9.2
Water supply to child and health care facilities
…………………………..
…………………………..
. 30
5.9.3
Water supply to other public facilities
…………………………..
…………………………..
……………
30
PART TWO
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
………..
32
Norms and standards for Sanitation Servi
ces …………………………..
…………………………..
………………….
32
6. Core norms and standards for sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
………..
33
6.1
Hygiene education and promotion services
…………………………..
…………………………..
………. 33
6.2.
Pollution risk management
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
… 34
6.2.1
Surface water, groundwater and coastal waters protection
…………………………..
…………..
34
6.2.2
Safe excreta disposal
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
……. 35
6.2.3
Greywater management
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
36
6.2.4
Wastewater and sludge management
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………..
36
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6.2.5
Effluent management
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
……. 38
6.3.
Wastewater, greywater and nutrient re
-use …………………………..
…………………………..
………. 40
6.3.1
Wastewater re
-use …………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………
40
6.3.2
Greywater re-
use …………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………..
41
6.3.3
Nutrient management and re
-use …………………………..
…………………………..
…………………
41
6.4
Operation and maintenance responsibilities
…………………………..
…………………………..
……… 42
6.5.
Sanitation metering and tariffing
…………………………..
…………………………..
………………………
43
6.6
Solid wast
e management
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
….. 44
6.7
Asset management
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
……………
44
7.
Norms and standards for levels of sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
.. 46
7.1
Interim sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…. 47
7.2
Basic sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…… 49
7.3
Full sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
……… 51
7.3.1
On -site sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
………………………….
52
7.3.2
Off -site sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
………………………….
53
8.
Emergency sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
….. 54
9.
Sanitation services to private land
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
56
10.
Sanitation services to public institu
tions and places
…………………………..
…………………………..
. 59
10.1
Sanitation services for schools and academic institutions
…………………………..
………………..
59
10.2
Sanitation services for c
linics, hospit
als, crèches and day
-care centres
…………………………
62
10.3
Sanitation services for libraries, old
-age homes, churches, cemeteries, sporting facilities,
police stations and correctional facilities.
…………………………..
…………………………..
……………………..
64
10.4
Sanitation services for public spaces
…………………………..
…………………………..
……………….
67
11.
Appropriate and improved sanitation infrastructure and facilities
…………………………..
………….
69
PART THREE
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
……. 72
Monitoring, reporting and regulating
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
….. 72
12.
Monitoring, reporting and regu
lating …………………………..
…………………………..
…………………….
73
PART FOUR
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
……… 75
14.
Conclusion
…………………………..
…………………………..
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…………………………..
76
References
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
………..
77
Annexure A:
Legislative requirements for water and sanitation services in South Africa
…………………
81
Annexure B: Principles underpinning the norms and st
andards for water and sanitation services
…… 88
Annexure C:
Guidelines and standards pertaining to norms and standards for water supply and
sanitation services
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
97
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